Prime Minister Boris Johnson wins the British general election. It is therefore likely that the Brexit agreement will be adopted soon. If the UK Parliament approves the deal, the European Parliament will be able to vote on it in January. This means that, until the end of the transition, most things will remain the same. These include the Declaration on the Future Relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom, also known as the Political Declaration, which was negotiated and signed at the same time as the binding and broader Withdrawal Agreement related to the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union (EU), commonly known as Brexit, and the planned end of the transition period. On 15Th Several members of the British government, including Dominic Raab, Secretary of State for Leaving the European Union, resigned on 18th November 2018, the day after the delivery of the agreement and the support of the Cabinet of the British Government. [28] On 17 October 2019, the United Kingdom and the European Union agreed on the conditions for the United Kingdom`s exit from the EU (Brexit) and a transitional period until 31 December 2020. The House of Commons votes in favour of the Brexit Act. This means that the UK is on track to leave the EU on 31 January. However, the House of Lords and the European Parliament have yet to approve the deal. After an unprecedented vote, on 4 December 22, 2018, MPs decided that the UK government was not respecting Parliament because it had refused to give Parliament the full legal advice it had received on the consequences of its proposed withdrawal conditions. [29] The central point of the opinion concerned the legal effect of the Backstop Agreement on Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom with regard to the customs border between the European Union and the United Kingdom and its impact on the Good Friday Agreement that led to the end of the unrest in Northern Ireland, and in particular on the security of the United Kingdom, to be able to leave the EU in practice, in accordance with the draft proposals. The European Union and the United Kingdom reach a draft withdrawal agreement.

A free trade agreement between Britain and the EU tops the to-do list. This will be essential if, after the transition, the UK wants to continue trading with the EU without tariffs, quotas or other barriers. The EU wants to maintain a close partnership with the UK. We believe that it is possible to reach a fruitful agreement on the basis of the political declaration. However, it is important that we prepare for all possible outcomes of the negotiations. This includes preparing for an agreement. The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the „Irish backstop“, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the United Kingdom`s withdrawal from the European Union. The Protocol contained a safety net provision to deal with circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements have yet to enter into force at the end of the transitional period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol which will be described as follows. Since March, the EU and the UK have been pursuing regular rounds of negotiations, despite the difficulties related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

The EU conducts its negotiations on the basis of the mutually agreed political declaration. However, significant differences are not yet resolved in some areas. These differences concern, in particular, fair competition, horizontal management of agreements and fisheries. EU and UK negotiators Michel Barnier and David Frost and their teams have recently stepped up their negotiations. . . .